Kusiyanitsa ndi Chikopa

Kusiyanitsa ndizofunikira zomwe makampani osamalira zikopa ndi ogula amafunikira kuti adziwe. Ukadaulo wamakono wopangira zikopa ukukulirakulira, ndipo pali mitundu yambiri yachikopa. Sikokwanira kusiyanitsa kutsimikizika ndi mtundu kuchokera pakulimba ndi kachulukidwe ka zibowo zomwe zili pakhungu. Kuphunzira kudziwa kusiyanitsa kwa zikopa, kumvetsetsa magwiridwe antchito ndi mphamvu yakukula kwa zikopa, ndizothandiza kwambiri pakupanga ndi kupanga zinthu zachikopa, kukonzanso ndikuyeretsa ndikuwononga kukonza kwa makampani osamalira zikopa, ndikugula ndikugwiritsa ntchito zikopa katundu wa ogula zinthu zachikopa. Kuyang'ana pakampani yofufuta nsalu padziko lapansi, zikopa zimaphatikizapo zikopa zenizeni, zikopa zobwezerezedwanso ndi zikopa zopangira.

Chikopa chenicheni ndi chikopa chobiriwira chosenda kuchokera ku ng'ombe, nkhosa, nkhumba, akavalo, nswala kapena nyama zina. Pambuyo pofufuta ndikusintha mu fakitale yachikopa, imapangidwa kukhala zida zachikopa ndimikhalidwe yosiyanasiyana, mphamvu, kumva, mitundu ndi mawonekedwe. Pakati pawo, chikopa cha ng'ombe, chikopa cha nkhosa ndi chikopa cha nkhumba ndi mitundu itatu yayikulu ya khungu yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito pofufuta.

Dermis limagawika mitundu iwiri: chikopa choyamba ndi chikopa chachiwiri.

(1) Mbali yoyamba ya khungu ndi mbewu ya ng'ombe, nkhosa, khungu la nkhumba, ndi zina zotero. Khungu limakhala ndi zipsera zachilengedwe ndi minyewa yamagazi, ndipo nthawi zina pamadulidwa pokonza ndipo gawo lamimba limagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri. Chikopa choyamba cholowetsedwacho chimasindikizidwanso ndi nambala ya ng'ombeyo. Chikopa chambewu chokwanira chimatha kusiyanitsa zikopa za nyama ndi makulidwe ndi kuchuluka kwa ma pores. Pali mitundu yambiri ya chikopa cha ng'ombe, monga chikopa cha ng'ombe, chikopa cha ng'ombe, chikopa chodyera, chikopa cha ng'ombe, chikopa cha ng'ombe, chikopa chosakanizidwa ndi chikopa chophimbidwa. M'dziko lathu, pali chikopa cha chikopa chachikopa, chikopa cha njati, chikopa cha ng'ombe ndi chikopa cha yak. Pakati pawo, zikopa za njati ndizolimba komanso zopindika; mabowo a chikopa chachikaso ndi ocheperako komanso owirira kuposa achikopa a njati. Mitengo ya chikopa cha nkhosa ndiyabwino, yolimba komanso yopendekera pang'ono, ndipo pali mitundu iwiri yokha ya chikopa cha nkhosa ndi chikopa cha mbuzi. Zikopa za nkhumba zimasiyanitsidwa mosavuta chifukwa chogawa kwa 3 mpaka 5 tsitsi pang'ono. Nthawi zambiri amagwiritsa ntchito zikopa za nkhumba zopangidwa ndi nkhumba komanso zikopa za boar. Nguluwe yotchuka yaku South America ili ndi mawonekedwe owonekera. Nkhumba za khungu la nkhumba ndi mikhalidwe yambewu, chifukwa cha kapangidwe kake kapadera ka kolajeni, imatha kusinthidwa kukhala chikopa chofewa kwambiri kapena chikopa cha magolovesi, chomwe ndichofunika kwambiri. Kuphatikiza apo, khungu la nthiwatiwa, khungu la ng'ona, khungu la ng'ona lalifupi, khungu la buluzi, khungu la njoka, khungu la ng'ombe, khungu la nsomba (khungu la shaki, khungu la cod, khungu la eel, khungu la eel, khungu la nsomba, ndi zina zotero), nsomba zamadzi khungu (Pali ma carp a udzu, zikopa za carp ndi zikopa zina za nsomba), zikopa za nkhandwe (zikopa zasiliva, zikopa za buluu, ndi zina zambiri), zikopa za nkhandwe, zikopa za agalu, zikopa za akalulu, ndi zina zambiri, zomwe ndizosavuta kuzizindikira sizingapangidwe kukhala zikopa ziwiri. Khungu lakumutu limakonzedwa mwachindunji kuchokera ku zikopa zosaphika za nyama zosiyanasiyana, kapena zikopa zolimba za ng'ombe, nkhumba, akavalo ndi zikopa zina zanyama zimasokonekera ndikudula zigawo zakumtunda ndi kumunsi. Gawo lakumtunda lokhala ndi minofu yolimba imakonzedwa mitu ingapo.

(2) Kakhungu kosanjikiza kawiri ndi gawo losanjikiza kawiri lokhala ndi zotumphukira, zomwe zimakonzedwa ndi kupopera mankhwala kapena kuphimba ndi kanema wa PVC kapena PU. Chifukwa chake, njira yothandiza kusiyanitsa gawo loyamba la khungu ndi khungu lachiwiri ndikuteteza mawonekedwe a khungu la kotenga nthawi. Gulu loyamba la khungu limapangidwa ndi cholumikizira cholimba komanso chopyapyala chosanjikiza chosasunthika pang'ono cholumikizana nacho. Lili ndi mawonekedwe a mphamvu zabwino, kukhathamira ndi pulasitiki. Chingwe chachiwiri chachikopa chimangokhala ndi cholumikizira chokhwima, chomwe chingagwiritsidwe ntchito kupangira zinthu zachikopa mutapopera mankhwala kapena mankhwala opangira mankhwala. Imasunganso kukhathamira kwachilengedwe komanso ukadaulo wapulasitiki, koma mphamvu yake ndiyochepa, ndipo makulidwe ake amafunikira kuti akhale ofanana ndi woyamba uja. Palinso zikopa zosiyanasiyana zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga zinthu masiku ano. Ukadaulo wopangira zikopa ndiwosiyana, koma njira yosiyanitsira ndiyofanana.


Post nthawi: Apr-21-2021